Prostate Cancer



Prostate cancer often does not cause any signs or symptoms, especially in its early stages. Symptoms may appear if the tumour makes the prostate larger than normal and it starts to press on the urethra. Possible symptoms include:

  • changes in bladder habits:
    • need to urinate often (frequency), especially at night
    • intense need to urinate (urgency)
    • difficulty in starting or stopping the urine flow
    • inability to urinate
    • weak or decreased urine stream
    • interrupted urine stream
    • a sense of incompletely emptying the bladder
    • burning or pain during urination
  • blood in the urine or semen
  • painful ejaculation

However, prostate-related symptoms are also associated with non-cancerous conditions, therefore it is important to consult a doctor. Most enlargements of the prostate are not cancer. Other conditions include:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a non-cancerous growth of the prostate. Prostate enlargement is a phenomenon that occurs with aging in the majority of men. Urinary symptoms caused by BPH are similar to symptoms caused by prostate cancer.
  • Prostatitis: an infection or inflammation of the prostate. Prostatitis can cause significant increases in PSA levels. Twenty-five percent of men that have urinary problems have prostatitis. The two forms of prostatitis, acute and chronic, can be treated with antibiotics.